By 1915, more than 60 percent of U.S. film production was centered in Hollywood (Britannica Online). Some producers realized that the growing demand for new work could only be met if the films were produced on a regular, year-round system. The Cold War with the Soviet Union began in 1947, and with it came the widespread fear of communism, not only from the outside, but equally from within. The MPPC also underestimated the appeal of the star system, a trend that began when producers chose famous stage actors like Mary Pickford and James O’Neill to play the leading roles in their productions and to grace their advertising posters (Robinson). These “dream palaces,” so called because of their often lavish embellishments of marble, brass, guilding, and cut glass, not only came to replace the nickelodeon theater, but also created the demand that would lead to the Hollywood studio system. By 1929, three-fourths of Hollywood films had some form of sound accompaniment, and by 1930, the silent film was a thing of the past (Gochenour). In 1912, Méliès released his last commercially successful production, The Conquest of the Pole, and from then on, he lost audiences to filmmakers who were experimenting with more sophisticated techniques (Encyclopedia of Communication and Information). As exhibitors began to show more features—as the multiple-reel film came to be called—they discovered a number of advantages over the single-reel short. The major Hollywood studios of the late 1970s and early 1980s, now run by international corporations, tended to favor the conservative gamble of the tried and true, and as a result, the period saw an unprecedented number of high-budget sequels—as in the Star Wars, Indiana Jones, and Godfather films—as well as imitations and adaptations of earlier successful material, such as the plethora of “slasher” films that followed the success of the 1979 thriller Halloween. 6 page essay about the hollywood blacklist. and her signature film Stormy Weather. Does Prospero truly undergo a "transformation" by the end of The Tempest? Nonetheless, even with these advancements, movie attendance never again reached the record numbers it experienced in 1946, at the peak of the Golden Age of Hollywood (Britannica Online). Hollywood Blacklist Introduction Hollywood is an entertainment company that neighbors the most centralized area of Los Angeles in California. Motion Pictures, “Pre World War II Sound Era: Introduction of Sound,” Motion Pictures, http://www.uv.es/EBRIT/macro/macro_5004_39_11.html#0017. Workers Leaving the Lumière Factory: One of the first films viewed by an audience. We’ve got you covered. In 1948, the case of the United States v. Paramount Pictures—mandating competition and forcing the studios to relinquish control over theater chains—dealt the final devastating blow from which the studio system would never recover. Its effects and duration are also considered. They were afraid of the influence these men had in Hollywood (“Effects”). Higham, Charles. Despite the success of certain color films in the 1930s, Hollywood, like the rest of the United States, was feeling the impact of the Great Depression, and the expenses of special cameras, crews, and Technicolor lab processing made color films impractical for studios trying to cut costs. During the 1960s and 1970s, there was a rise in films—including, The adoption of the VCR by most households in the 1980s reduced audiences at movie theaters but opened a new mass market of home movie viewers. These 10, later known as the Hollywood Ten, were fired from their jobs and sentenced to serve up to a year in prison. The history presented here begins at the culmination of these technological developments, where the idea of the motion picture as an entertainment industry first emerged. However, the sheer volume of reports about the early audience’s disbelief, delight, and even fear at what they were seeing suggests that viewing a film was an overwhelming experience for many. The filmmaking business took a drastic turn after the end of, The development of the Paramount decision and the, Hollywood Blacklist created an atrocious environment that created, such devastating effects at the time it also helped to create. This short essay should: Due Wednesday 18th March, 12pm.Submit this on Tabula. ... David makes a trip to New York, where old Broadway friends betray him when they discover he's blacklisted. 2014), Strongly Recommended: Rebecca Arnold, The American Look (2012); William Graebner, The Age of Doubt (1991); Susan Ware, Holding Their Own (1982); Vance Packard, The Hidden Persuaders (1957); Beretta Smith-Shomade, Shaded Lives (2002); Robert Sklar, Movie Made America (1975), 50% 3,000-Word Essay: Due Wednesday 22nd April, 12pm. History of the motion picture - History of the motion picture - The war years and post-World War II trends: During the U.S. involvement in World War II, the Hollywood film industry cooperated closely with the government to support its war-aims information campaign. For the first time, the hefty sums producers and distributers invested didn’t go to production costs alone; distributers were discovering the benefits of TV and radio advertising and finding that doubling their advertising costs could increase profits as much as three or four times over. Only one movie from a big film studio was nominated—Jerry Maguire—while the rest were independent films. The images viewers could see in the kinetoscope captured events and performances that had been staged at Edison’s film studio in East Orange, New Jersey, especially for the Edison kinetograph (the camera that produced kinetoscope film sequences): circus performances, dancing women, cockfights, boxing matches, and even a tooth extraction by a dentist (Robinson, 1994). Uploaded By croaker1985; Pages 2; Ratings 100% (16) 16 out of 16 people found this document helpful. Belton, John. 2020 © gradesfixer.com. The Decline in Average Weekly Cinema Attendance: 1930–2000. ... Hollywood blacklists along with other blacklists destroyed hundreds of people's lives. However, the new liberal attitudes toward depictions of sex and violence in these films represented a sea of change in the movie industry that manifested in many movies of the 1970s, including Francis Ford Coppola’s The Godfather (1972), William Friedkin’s The Exorcist (1973), and Steven Spielberg’s Jaws (1975), all three of which saw great financial success (Britannica Online; Belton, 1994). Edison, after all, had commissioned the kinetoscope to create a visual accompaniment to the phonograph, and many early theaters had orchestra pits to provide musical accompaniment to their films. Of those investigated, 10 in particular refused to cooperate with the committee’s questions. Students who find writing to be a difficult task. However, because only two colors were used, the appearance of The Toll of the Sea (1922), The Ten Commandments (1923), and other early Technicolor films was not very lifelike. To undermine this perceived threat, the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) commenced investigations to locate communist sympathizers in America who were … With the opening of Jaws, one of the five top-grossing films of the decade (and the highest grossing film of all time until the release of Star Wars in 1977), Hollywood embraced the wide-release method of movie distribution, abandoning the release methods of earlier decades, in which a film would debut in only a handful of select theaters in major cities before it became gradually available to mass audiences. In 1895, the brothers patented the cinématographe (from which we get the term cinema), a lightweight film projector that also functioned as a camera and printer. In response to this perceived threat, state and local governments increasingly tried to censor the content of films that depicted crime, violence, and sexually explicit material. Its success paved the way for the growth of the film industry, as investors, recognizing the motion picture’s great moneymaking potential, began opening the first permanent film theaters around the country. Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. Because of the MPPC’s inflexibility, independent companies were the only ones able to capitalize on two important trends that were to become film’s future: single-reel features and star power. The word "blacklist” can put fear in many people. The studio suggests he see a lawyer named Graff played by Sam Wanamaker, himself a blacklist victim. He could then heighten the tension of the film’s drama by alternating between cuts more and more rapidly until the scenes of action converged. Identify key points in the development of the motion picture industry. Provide a detailed explanation of why each of these films represents significant changes in attitudes, technology, or trends and situate each in the overall context of film’s development. A prime example of this is the 1996 Academy Awards program, when independent films dominated the Best Picture category. Because of the nature of the crime and the celebrity involved, these fears became inexplicably tied to the Artbuckle case (Motion Pictures). However, when friends and collaborators suggested that Edison find a way to project his kinetoscope images for audience viewing, he apparently refused, claiming that such an invention would be a less profitable venture (Britannica). Hollywood blacklist, list of media workers ineligible for employment because of alleged communist or subversive ties, generated by Hollywood studios in the late 1940s and ’50s.
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