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This may be due the reason that sub-adult males are highly sensitive to predation pressure by leopards and dogs. Paired t test was used to compare the number of individuals in different age and sex groups. Some calls are restricted to certain higher-status animals. However, the range lies between − 5 °C and 35 °C (Brnesh et al. Females reach sexual maturity at about three years of age, but do not give birth for another year. In zoos, females use particular estrus calls to alert males that the time is right for mating. There are large populations of gelada in the Semien Mountains. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. 2017;17:27–33.

Data were analyzed using SPSS software. The area coverage of the forest is about 82 km2 (Brnesh et al. Dexterous fingers enable them to deftly pick blades of grass and herbs to eat and dig up tubers. A recent study reveled that geladas at Guassa, pristine grassland habitat 11,500 feet above sea level, also consume snails, ants, and even desert locusts. On the other hand, the ratio of adult male to adult female was larger than the ratio of males to females during both seasons. On the contrary, group size increases during wet but decreases during dry season (Ankle-Simons, 2007). Primate Conservation. The age-sex category and the numbers of geladas found within the different blocks were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, and paired t test was also used to analyze the pair wise comparison of the different age and sex categories during both dry and wet seasons. (2008), troop size increases during dry season due to the fact that there will not be spatial restriction. The presence of a greater degree of sexual dimorphism in which males are larger than females is the other distinguishing feature of the extant genus Theropithecus (Iwamoto 1993) (Fig. Human-induced habitat loss is a primary threat to geladas. Gray Langur. Geladas live in matriarchal societies; family units join to form large foraging bands of 30 to 350 animals. North Shoa Zone Trade Industry and Market Development Department provided fund for data collection. Family: Cercopithecidae. The average number of gelada baboons counted was 1608. Acta Univ Agri Silvi Mend Brun. Population size . Geladas live in one-male reproductive units that contain one breeding male and 3 to 5 females and their offspring.

There was a significant difference among the different age and sex groups counted during the dry season (F 2468 = 696.6, P < 0.05). The bright red patch on the chest of geladas makes them distinguished and called as bleeding heart baboons. 2012;33:1–15. There is tug-of-war over the landscape, as humans use it for agriculture, even cultivating steep slopes by hand.

However, the quality of the habitat is decreasing due to livestock grazing, agricultural expansion, and invasion of exotic plants species. Adult females also had a ratio of 1:3.3 during the wet season and 1:3.2 during dry season to juveniles. Kassahun A, Afework B. Geladas of today are the last members of a formerly successful and widespread genus, which inhabited India and many parts of Africa. Geladas have a diverse repertoire of over 30 different vocalizations—typical of highly social animals. This variation might be due to the fact that most of the time, the births of young geladas occur after the wet season (Dessalegn and Afework 2014). Department of Biology, Debre Markos University, P.O.Box 269, Debre Markos, Ethiopia, Department of Zoological Sciences, Addis Ababa University, P.O.Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, You can also search for this author in Evol Anthrop. This might be due to the presence of smaller habitats in the present study area. Dimensions: height - 130 сm, weight - 100 kg. 2015) (Fig. Fruits and invertebrates are eaten opportunistically, and cereal crops may be taken where agriculture encroaches onto the geladas' habitat. 2014). The grasses found in the open grassland habitat type were the best reasons for the geladas to be there. The population size of gelada baboons was determined from direct total count. Out of the total population adult females accounted for 54.7% in the wet and 54.56% in the dry seasons.

1).
The ratio of adult males to adult females was 1:6.1 and 1:6.3 in wet and dry seasons, respectively. During the wet season, the mean group size of AMU was 3.75 ± 1.2 and that of the dry season was 4 ± 1.2. Ethiopia Afr J Ecol. (2013). (2008) in Simien Mountains National Park. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre.

The monkeys tend to flee from danger, but males have been observed confronting dogs and even mobbing and surrounding a leopard! The monkeys stick close to cliffs to use them as sleeping sites and climb up to the plateaus for their daily grazing and social activities. Mori A, Belay G. The distribution of baboon species and a new population of gelada baboons along the Wabi-Shebeli River, Ethiopia. However, this variation was not statistically significant (χ2 = 4.2, df = 2, P > 0.05). The mean annual rainfall is 1400 mm, and it has a bimodal type of distribution having a long wet season (from July to September). j ecology environ 42, 35 (2018).

Its topography is characterized by extremely steep slopes whereby the forest is located on the east side of the mountains (Eyosias and Teshome 2015). In females, pearl-like knobs of skin surround this skin patch.

Population size, group composition and behavioural ecology of geladas (Theropithecus gelada) and human-gelada conflict in Wonchit Valley, Ethiopia. The pairwise comparison of the different age and sex groups through paired t test showed that, the number of adult females was significantly different from the number of adult male (t = 3.76, df = 3, P < 0.05), sub-adult male (t = 3.96, df = 3, P < 0.05), sub-adult female (t = 4.33, df = 3, P < 0.05), and unidentified sex juveniles (t = 3.91, df = 3, P < 0.05) in wet season.
2008) 2006 survey to estimate population size within and around the park c. 4260-4560 in the park and surrounding region

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